Fix hyphenation in WordPress themes

A new blog that I installed using the TwentyFifteen theme has annoying hyphenation on the posts. I found an easy fix online. Open the style.css file and insert this at the end.

   -webkit-hyphens: none;
   -moz-hyphens:    none;
   -ms-hyphens:     none;
   hyphens:         none;

Perl gotcha’s–equality

If you try to compare strings using ==, and you have included the use warnings pragma, you will get a warning, as in the example below. However, Perl will still attempt to convert the string into a number. If the string starts with numbers, Perl will use these, otherwise the string equates to 0.

So my conditional,

if ($device_id == '5G0E3663') { ... }

compares two zeros and always returns true. Which in my case made bad things happen.
The correct way to compare strings is:

if ($device_id eq '5G0E3663') { ... }

h/t perlmeme.

for loops in bash

I don’t do much shell scripting, but every once in a while I use it to automate things. I was playing around with bash today and thought this might interest others.

Define an array variable
$ servers=(server purple yellow dan);
$ echo $servers

Redefine it.
$ servers=(firstserver server purple yellow dan);
$ echo $servers

That’s not what I want. So how do we access the values? Let’s try a for loop.
$ for name in $servers; do echo $name; done;
$ echo $servers

Well that didn’t do it. Let’s try to access the second value with array notation.
$ for name in $servers; do echo $servers[1]; done;

If you look carefully at this you’ll notice that what is happening is that you are concatenating the return value from $server with [1]. Try it again with this line.

$ for name in $servers; do echo $servers[a]; done;

And again.
$ for name in $servers; do echo $servers.a; done;

As long as you use a character that is not a valid part of a variable name, you get concatenation.
e.g. don’t use an alphanumeric.
$ for name in $servers; do echo $serversabc; done;

There is no variable called serverabc, so you get a blank line.

It turns out that bash has weird syntax for working with variables.
$ echo ${servers[2]}

Add another value.
$ servers[5]=finalvalue
$ echo ${servers[5]}

So how about we separate out the loop variable like this?
$ for name in $servers; do echo $servers${name}; done;

Well, we’re getting warmer.
$ for name in $servers; do echo $name; done;

This is getting frustrating. Let’s back up and try just listing a bunch of stuff in a list.
$ for name in firstserver server purple yellow dan finalvalue; do echo $name; done;

So we can make a for loop iterate through items, but the normal way of accessing elements of an array doesn’t work in bash. It turns out that you need special syntax.

$ echo ${servers[@]}
firstserver server purple yellow finalvalue finalvalue

And to loop through everything like we wanted to do at the start.
$ for name in ${servers[@]}; do echo $name; done;
final value

That wasn’t so hard was it?

Put footer at the bottom of the page

This only works if the page content is not bigger than the window.
Try it yourself or check it out at FixedFooter.

<!DOCTYPE html>
<html lang="en">

  <title>Fixed Footer Example</title>
    <meta http-equiv="Content-Type" content="text/html; charset=utf-8" />

  <style type="text/css">
  html, body, #container {
      height: 100%;
      margin: auto;
      text-align: center;

  #footer {
        margin: auto;
        text-align: center;


<div id="container">
    <h1>This is the main content</h1>
    <p>If it is bigger than the window, then the footer will play over it.</p>
    <p>The footer can be inside or outside of the container.</p>

<div id="footer">
    <p>This is the footer content.</p>


Rollover Text on Images

Here are two ways to do image rollovers. One is pure CSS and the other uses javascript. You can view them here.

The CSS version uses a background image and the hover is a transparent png with just the text in it.

The javascript version swaps out images on rollover and click.

<style type="text/css">

.image {
    display: block;
    clear: left;

.rollover img {
    opacity: 0;

.rollover img:hover {
    opacity: 1.0;


<div class="image" style="background:url(Roscher_Photo_1.jpg);">
    <a class="rollover" href=""><img src="Roscher_Photo_1_Text.png" alt="Rollover text" /></a>

<div class="image">
    <a href="Roscher_Photo_1.jpg"
    onmouseover="if (document.images) document.imagename1.src='Roscher_Photo_1_Annotated.jpg';"
    onmouseout="if (document.images)  document.imagename1.src='Roscher_Photo_1.jpg';">

        <img src="Roscher_Photo_1.jpg" name="imagename1"
        alt="Moving the cursor over the image will bring up an annotated version.
        Clicking on the image will bring up the highest resolution version available.">